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TECHNOLOGIES ENGINEERING SERVICES FERTILIZERS EXPLOSIVES EVAPORATION & CRYSTALLIZATION AIR & WATER TREATMENT
AIR & WATER TREATMENT  


1. GENERALITIES

Having a huge experience of explosive, Fertilizers and chemical industries, CFI Group can propose technologies for air and water treatment mainly for:

- Dust                                    : removal and recovery.
- Ammonia                             : removal and recovery.
- Fluorine                               : removal and recovery.
- NOx and SOx                       : removal and recovery (specific cases).

CFI Group is providing technologies, engineering and key equipment for any of such environmental project. By using all those technologies, a resulting effluent is normally obtained which is fully recycled within the global process.


2. AIR TREATMENT

2.1. EXPLOSIVE AND AMMONIUM NITRATE TECHNOLOGIES

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a) Dust         : 10 to 15 mg/Nm3
b) Ammonia  : 5 to 10 mg/Nm3

CFI Group can provide below technologies for ammonium nitrate (“AN”) solution, prilling or granulation:

-    Steam treatment column
AN neutralizer (reactor where synthesis of AN occurs) is producing process steam contaminated by ammonia and AN droplets. The steam treatment column is a vertical vessel fitted with packing to fix ammonia by spraying acidic diluted AN solution and bubble cap trays for fixing AN droplets. A demister is used to avoid any entrainment.
-    Air loop scrubbing for AN prilling tower
Dusty hot air, going outlet the AN prilling tower top, is collected and sent to a vertical packed scrubber, fitted with packing and demister and located at ground level in order to be cleaned and cooled down. Cold clean air is re-injected at prilling tower bottom.
-    Scrubbing for AN prilling tower top
Dusty hot air, going outlet the AN prilling tower top, is collected and sent to a horizontal packed scrubber, fitted with packing and demister and located at top of prilling tower in order to be cleaned. Option with filter cartridge is available.
-    Venturi scrubber
This scrubber, fitted with a venturi leg, a cyclonic separator, droplet separator and demister is used for strong abatement of ammonia and AN dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted AN solution.
-    Finishing scrubber
This horizontal scrubber, fitted with a packing and demister is used for fine tuning abatement of ammonia and AN dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted AN solution and fixation of ammonia on packing by the same acidic diluted AN solution.


2.2. NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a) Dust        : 10 to 15 mg/Nm3
b) Ammonia : 5 to 10 mg/Nm3

CFI Group can provide below technologies for calcium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate, UAS, ASN, CAN, and whatever is the process, prilling or granulation:

-    Scrubbing for prilling tower top
Dusty hot air, going outlet the prilling tower top, is collected and sent to a horizontal packed scrubber, fitted with packing and demister and located at top of prilling tower in order to be cleaned. Option with filter cartridge is available. A specific upgrade is added in case of insoluble matter presence.
-    Venturi scrubber
This scrubber, fitted with a venturi leg, a cyclonic separator, droplet separator and demister is used for strong abatement of ammonia and dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted solution. A specific upgrade is added in case of insoluble matter presence.
-    Finishing scrubber
This horizontal scrubber, fitted with a packing and demister is used for fine tuning abatement of ammonia and dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted solution and fixation of ammonia on packing by the same acidic diluted solution.


2.3. NITROPHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a) Dust        : 10 to 15 mg/Nm3
b) Ammonia : 5 to 10 mg/Nm3
c) Fluorine   : 2 to 5 mg/Nm3

CFI Group can provide below technologies for NP or NPK process by nitrophosphate route, and whatever is the process, prilling or granulation:

-    Acidic scrubbing
Gases containing ammonia are cleaned by spraying of acidic diluted solution in a vertical type scrubber. This scrubber is fitted with specific internals and demister.
-    Basic scrubbing (2 stages)
Gases containing NOx are cleaned by spraying of urea diluted solution in a vertical type scrubber. This scrubber is fitted with specific internals and demister.
-    Cycloning (for granulation only)
Dusty air is passing through a high efficiency cyclone designed for collecting 99.5% minimum of dust. Generally, cycloning is followed by scrubbing.
-    Venturi scrubbing (for granulation only)
This scrubber, fitted with a venturi leg, a cyclonic separator and centrifuge separator is used for strong abatement of ammonia, fluorine and dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted solution. A specific upgrade is added for insoluble matter presence.
-    Tail gas scrubbing (for granulation only)
This scrubber is a vertical packed scrubber, fitted with 2 different types of packing and a centrifugal demister allowing ammonia, fluorine and dust capture.


2.4. SSP (S18), TSP (S45), MAP, DAP, MCP, DCP AND COMPOUND FERTILIZERS (NPK)

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a) Dust        : 10 to 15 mg/Nm3
b) Ammonia : 5 to 10 mg/Nm3
c) Fluorine   : 2 to 5 mg/Nm3

CFI Group can provide below technologies for GSSP, GTSP, MAP, DAP, MCP, DCP and NPK processes (steam granulation, chemical granulation or pipe reactor granulation):

-    Cycloning
Dusty air is passing through a high efficiency cyclone designed for collecting 99.5% minimum of dust. Generally, cycloning is followed by scrubbing.
-    Venturi scrubbing
This scrubber, fitted with a venturi leg, a cyclonic separator and centrifuge separator is used for strong abatement of ammonia, fluorine and dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted solution. A specific upgrade is added for insoluble matter presence.
-    Tail gas scrubbing
This scrubber is a vertical packed scrubber, fitted with 2 different types of packing and a centrifugal demister allowing ammonia, fluorine and dust capture.
-    Bag filter
For hot and dry air, bag filter may be used. This technology allows to minimize water use. However, it cannot be used in tropical area or for NPK formula at high nitrogen content otherwise, bag filter gets clogged very quickly.


2.5. SINGLE SUPERPHOSPHATE AND TRIPLE SUPERPHOSPHATE POWDER

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a) Dust       : 10 to 15 mg/Nm3
b) Fluorine  : 2 to 5 mg/Nm3

CFI Group can provide below technologies for SSP or TSP process:

-    Venturi scrubbing
Those scrubbers, fitted with a venturi leg, a cyclonic separator and centrifuge separator is used for strong abatement of fluorine and dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted solution. A series of 4 scrubbers is necessary to reach the highest performance.
-    Tail gas scrubber
This scrubber is being used for odor treatment. Smells are produced during phosphate rock attack by sulphuric or phosphoric acid. Organics contained in the phosphate rock react with acid to form mercaptans. Those are oxidized at correct pH.


2.6. CHEMICAL PROCESS PLANT: CRYSTALLIZATION

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a)Dust        : 10 to 15 mg/Nm3
b)Ammonia : 5 to 10 mg/Nm3
c)Fluorine   : 2 to 5 mg/Nm3

CFI Group can provide below technologies for any crystallization process:

-    Cycloning
Dusty air is passing through a high efficiency cyclone designed for collecting 99.5% minimum of dust. Generally, cycloning is followed by scrubbing.
-    Venturi scrubbing
This scrubber, fitted with a venturi leg, a cyclonic separator and centrifuge separator is used for strong abatement of ammonia, fluorine and dust by coalescence of particles with fine sprayed droplets of diluted solution. A specific upgrade is added for insoluble matter presence.
-     Tail gas scrubbing
This scrubber is a vertical packed scrubber, fitted with 2 different types of packing and a centrifugal demister allowing ammonia, fluorine and dust capture.
-     Bag filter
For hot and dry air, bag filter may be used. This technology allows to minimize water use. However, it cannot be used in tropical area or for sticky product otherwise, bag filter gets clogged very quickly.


3. WATER TREATMENT

3.1. EXPLOSIVE AND AMMONIUM NITRATE TECHNOLOGIES

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to minimize:

a) AN content
b) Ammonia content

CFI Group can provide below technologies for ammonium nitrate (“AN”) solution, prilling or granulation:

-    Process condensate recycling
Process condensates are primarily used in AN plant. Excess is neutralized and its temperature is adjusted allowing a maximized recycling to nitric acid plant. Remaining quantity is used in another section of the complex or treated to be put in an acceptable form.
-    Ammonia stripping
Process condensates from AN plant are containing dissolved ammonia. The stripping column, fitted with packing and demister, equipped with a reboiler and a condenser is used for recovery of ammonia, reaching the required low total nitrogen content in the process condensates.
-    Process condensate treatment
Process condensates from AN plant are contaminated by AN. To remove this AN content, a double effect evaporator is installed made of 2 heat exchangers (falling film type) fitted with demisters. Concentrated AN solution is re-sent to the AN section while purified water can be discharged at BL.


3.2. NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to minimize:

a) Total N content
b) Ammoniacal or ureic N content (depending on the case)

CFI Group can provide below technologies for calcium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate, UAS, ASN, CAN, and whatever is the process, prilling or granulation:

-    Concentration
For concentrating an effluent with N content, an evaporator is installed made of a heat exchanger (falling film type) fitted with demister. Concentrated N solution is re-sent to the main wet section. A specific upgrade is added in case of insoluble matter presence.
-    Finishing scrubber


3.3. NITROPHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to minimize:

a) Solid matter
b) N content
c) P2O5 content
d) Fluorine content

Nitrophosphate effluents are a mix of process condensates and liquids having N, P2O5  fluorine and solid matter contamination. The water treatment process is made of 4 steps:

-   Step 1: in the first section, ammoniacal nitrogen is treated by adding caustic soda to reach a basic pH and then, removed by air stripping. The stripping is done in 2 towers: an open cooling column and a packed column. A steam heater shall be also installed to improve removal efficiency.
-   Step 2: phosphates and fluorides are removed in flocculation section. A solution of hydrated lime is mixed with the effluent in a specific flocculation tank where phosphate and fluoride of calcium are formed. Then, they are removed under sludge form. After this removal, liquid effluent is again mixed with flocculating agent and alum, then directed to another flocculating tank where phosphates and fluorides of aluminium are separated to deliver a liquid effluent having very few ppm of P2O5 and fluorides. Then, sludge is separated by centrifugation. Calcium fluorides CaF2 may be recovered for specific applications. 
-   Step 3: nitrite and nitrate nitrogen is removed by de-nitrification. Oxides of nitrogen are broken down to nitrogen and oxygen in an anaerobic reactor.
-   Step 4: sludge is dried in a drying bed. Dry sludge is discharged out of the plant leaving a liquid effluent with very few ppm of nitrate nitrogen.


3.4. SSP (S18), TSP (S45), MAP, DAP, MCP, DCP AND COMPOUND FERTILIZERS (NPK)

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to minimize:

a) Solid matter
b) N content (excluding SSP, TSP, MCP and DCP)
c) P2O5 content
d) Fluorine content

The process for water treatment is customized depending on type of plant and characteristics of effluents.


3.5. SINGLE SUPERPHOSPHATE AND TRIPLE SUPERPHOSPHATE POWDER

CFI Group is providing technologies and engineering allowing to reach the below performances:

a) Solid matter
b) P2O5 content
c) Fluorine content

For SSP and TSP, specific H2SiF6 treatment may be proposed.