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TECHNOLOGIES ENGINEERING SERVICES FERTILIZERS EXPLOSIVES EVAPORATION & CRYSTALLIZATION AIR & WATER TREATMENT
EVAPORATION & CRYSTALLIZATION
LIST OF PRODUCTS OBTAINABLE BY EVAPORATION / CRYSTALLIZATION 
*Remark: The compositions given below in the FEED column may be approximate. 

1.FERTILIZER INDUSTRY 

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT  TYPE OF OPERATION
- phosphoric acid 54% rock attack by sulphuric acid 27% P2O5 54% P2O5 Concentration
- superphosphoric acid 54% P2O5 70% P2O5 concentration
- ammonium sulphate (synthesis) H2SO4 98% + NH3 crystals crystallization, synthesis
- potassium nitrate from caliche ore solution KNO3 + NaNO3 crystals crystallization by vacuum cooling
from KCl + NaNO3 solution KNO3 + NaCl crystals
from KCl + AN solution KNO3 + NH4Cl crystals  
- calcium nitrate rock attack by nitric acid slurry from reactor crystals, 4 H2O crystallization by surface cooling
- potassium chloride from sylvinite ore solution KCl + NaCl crystals crystallization by vacuum cooling
from carnalite solution KCl crystals
- potassium chloride industry, by-products
Ex:magnesium sulphate (epsomite)
crystals, 7 H2O crystallization by vacuum cooling
- ammonium phosphates (MAP, DAP) synthesis phosphoric acid + NH3 crystals crystallization, synthesis
- urea crystals crystallization by evaporation
- potassium sulphate crystals crystallization by evaporation


2. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY / FIBERS AND POLYMERS INTERMEDIATES   

PRODUCT END PRODUCT   TYPE OF OPERATION
- ammonium sulphate (purges from caprolactam, acrylic acid, methyl metacrylate)
    Note: reactive or evaporative type crystallizer, depending on process
crystals crystallization by evaporation
crystallization, synthesis
- adipic acid crystals crystallization by vacuum cooling
- sodium carbonate (on BASF caprolactam  process) crystals, 1H2O crystallization by evaporation


3. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY / CHLORINE 

PRODUCT   PROCESS  FEED* END PRODUCT

TYPE OF OPERATION

- sodium chloride from deposits brine at 23% abt. crystals crystallization by evaporation
- caustic soda from diaphragm electrolysis cells Note: no more new plants (diaphragm made of asbestos); revamping possible diaphragm electrolysis cells 10% NaOH, 13% NaCl 50% NaOH + NaCl concentration +crystallization
- caustic soda from membrane electrolysis cells   membrane electrolysis cells 32% NaOH 50% NaOH concentration
- sodium chlorate electrolysis 42% NaClO3, 8% NaCl crystals crystallization by evaporation
- potassium chlorate cooling double decomposition depending on process crystals crystallization by vacuum
- sodium perchlorate electrolysis 63% NH4ClO4, 7%NaClO3 abt. crystals, 1H2O crystallization by evaporation
- ammonium perchlorate double decomposition depending on process crystals crystallization by cooling
- sodium sulphate (Glauber salt) cooling salt purification 5%Na2SO4, 25% NaCl crystals, 10H2O crystallization by vacuum
- sodium sulphate (anhydrous) salt purification 30% Na2SO4 crystals crystallization by evaporation


4. SALT PRODUCERS

PRODUCT PROCESS   FEED* END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- sodium chloride from deposits brine at 23% abt. crystals crystallization by evaporation
- sodium sulphate (Glauber salt) cooling salt purification 5% Na2SO4, 25% NaCl crystals, 10H2O crystallization by vacuum
- sodium sulphate (anhydrous) salt purification 30% Na2SO4 crystals crystallization by evaporation


5. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY / PURGES 

-  Purges resulting from neutralizations containing sodium sulphate or ammonium sulphate and other organic or inorganic substances.


6. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY / ORGANICS

PRODUCT END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- malic acid crystals crystallization by vacuum cooling
- fumaric acid crystals crystallization by evaporation
- hexamine crystals crystallization by evaporation


7. SODA INDUSTRY

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT  TYPE OF OPERATION
- sodium carbonate (especially in the USA, Wyoming) from Trona deposits 30% Na2CO3 crystals, 1H2O crystallization by evaporation
- calcium chloride (if Solvay process) Solvay process 12.5% CaCl2, 5% NaCl flakes, 2H2O crystallization by evaporation


8. TITANIUM DIOXYDE (sulphuric acid process)     

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT  TYPE OF OPERATION
- concentration of process liquor “black liquor” from ilmenite sulphuric attack 18% TiOSO4 22% TiOSO4 concentration
- ferrous sulphate (Copperas)  cooling from ilmenite sulphuric attack 20% FeSO4 crystals, 7H2O crystallization by vacuum


9. BORIC ACID and BORATES       

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- boric acid products  prepared from ores as Tincal, Colemanite, Trona brines from borax + H2O2 17% H3BO3 crystals crystallization by vacuum cooling
- borate pentahydrate 27% Na2B4O7 crystals, 5H2O crystallization by vacuum cooling
- borate decahydrate crystals, 10H2O crystallization by vacuum cooling
- perborate 30% NaBO2 crystals, 4H2O crystallization by evaporation


10. METALLURGY / HYDROMETALLURGY 

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- ammonium sulphate coke oven gas gas + H2SO4 crystals crystallization, synthesis
- ferrous chloride steel pickling crystals, 4H2O crystallization by evaporation
- ferric chloride 40% by weight concentration
- lithium chloride crystals, H2O crystallization by evaporation
- copper chloride crystals, 2H2O crystallization by evaporation
- aluminium chloride crystals, 6H2O HCl sparging
- copper sulphate crystals, 5H2O crystallization by evaporation
- cobalt sulphate crystals, 7H2O crystallization by evaporation
- nickel sulphate crystals, 6H2O crystallization by evaporation
- other sulphate such as from zinc, and molybdenium crystals
- sodium sulphate lead recycling 25% Na2SO4 abt. crystals crystallization by evaporation


11. CATTLE FOOD   

PRODUCT END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- lysine 62% by weight concentration
- methionine crystals crystallization by evaporation
- ammonium sulphate (by-product of the methionine production) crystals crystallization by evaporation


12. MISCELLANEOUS  

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- sterols (b sitosterol), from black liquor (paper industry) crystals crystallization by vacuum  cooling
- ammonium chloride various processes crystals crystallization by evaporation
- recovery of KCl and NaCl from aluminium recycling process crystals NaCl crystals KCl NaCl by evaporation
KCl by vacuum cooling
- NaCl from incineration of garbage  incineration/gas scrubbing NaCl 5 to 10% crystals crystallization by evaporation
- CaCl2 from incineration of garbage evaporation incineration/gas scrubbing CaCl2 5 to 10% crystals crystallization by evaporation


13. ENERGY

 PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- SO2 recovery from flue gas Wellman Lord/gas scrubbing Na2SO3 solution SO2 evaporation
- ammonium sulphate G.E.  Walther or other/gas scrubbing ammonium sulphate solution crystals evaporation


14. AGRO-INDUSTRY

PRODUCT PROCESS FEED* END PRODUCT TYPE OF OPERATION
- citric acid fermentation anhydrous, 1 H2O crystallization by evaporation
- citrates fermentation
- distillery, yeast and sodium glutamate slops with recovery of salts fermentation K2SO4 and other crystallization by evaporation
NOTE:
    This list is not limitative, other products can be crystallized. If there is no in-house experience available, laboratory tests can be performed.