CFI Holding

Nitrogen

Nitrogen increases the growth rate and the leaf size. It also intensifies the chlorophyll and the protein content. Crops with nitrogen deficiency turn to yellow but still have green veins. The yield is greatly impacted by nitrogen deficiency as it is the nutrient with the biggest influence on yield.

Ammonia storage tank
Ammonia bullets

LIQUID AMMONIA STORAGE

  • For big storage capacities, liquid ammonia is stored in a refrigerated tank. Ammonia storage tank will be a double wall and double integrity storage tank. Both walls will be able to structurally hold the total capacity of liquid ammonia. Ammonia vapors generated from ammonia storage tank are compressed at the vapor recovery compressor and sent back to ammonia storage tank.
  • For small storage capacities, liquid ammonia is stored in pressurized bullets. The pressure inside the bullets (vertical containers) is imposed by the climatic conditions on-site. Several bullets can be implemented in the storage area.
  • For intermediate storage capacities, liquid ammonia is stored in semi-refrigerated tanks. This technology combines the characteristics of the two above technologies (pressurized tanks refrigerated)

References:

Nitric acid plant

NITRIC ACID (NA)

Nitric acid (HNO3) is a highly corrosive mineral acid used in the production of ammonium nitrate and many other derivated nitrate products which find applications as fertilizers as well as explosives.

CFI Group can design mono pressure nitric acid plant and dual pressure nitric acid plant. CFI Group can provide services in revamping of existing nitric acid plant as well as help in relocation and set-up of used nitric acid plant.

References:

LDAN prills

LOW DENSITY AMMONIUM NITRATE (LDAN)

LDAN is a explosive mainly used in the mining industry.

AN solution (ANSOL) is synthesized in a neutralizer by reacting gaseous ammonia with nitric acid. The ANSOL is then concentrated in an evaporator to form concentrated ANSOL. Concentrated ANSOL is then prilled in prilling tower. The prilled ammonium nitrate is then conditioned in predryer-dryer drum where the porosity of the prills are created (giving the explosive capacity of the LDAN), further cooled in fluidized bed cooler and finally coated in a coating drum.

The vapors generated in the process are used to concentrate ANSOL in AN melt and the process condensates generated can be treated in the process condensates treatment unit.

References:

AN emulsion

AMMONIUM NITRATE EMULSION

Ammonium nitrate emulsion is an emulsion of fuel into ANSOL. ANSOL is mixed with dry ingredients for the preparation of an oxidizer solution. The oxidizer solution is sent to a blender to be mixed with the fuel, and some additives for the final emulsion formulation. This final emulsion is the pumped through a plate heat exchanger cooler before being stored in tank or truck.

References:

AN granules
AN prills

HIGH DENSITY AMMONIUM NITRATE (HDAN)

High Density Ammonium Nitrate (HDAN) is a popular fertilizer since it provides half of the nitrogen in the nitrate form and remaining half in the ammonium form.

Ammonium nitrate solution (ANSOL) is prepared in a neutralizer by reacting gaseous ammonia with nitric acid. The ANSOL is then concentrated in an evaporator to form concentrated ANSOL. Concentrated ANSOL is then once again evaporated in an air swept concentrator. The concentrated ANSOL can be either prilled in prilling tower or granulated in a fluidized rotary granulator. The prilled / granulated ammonium nitrate is cooled in fluidized bed cooler  or drum cooler and coated in the coating drum.

The vapors generated in the process are used to concentrate ANSOL in AN melt and the process condensates generated can be treated in the process condensates treatment unit.

References:

AS granules

AS dry crystallization
AS large crystals

AMMONIUM SULFATE (AS)

Ammonium Sulphate (AS) is a quick acting acidic fertilizer. It is available in granules or crystals form.

AS granules: The reaction takes place in a chemical granulator equipped with a pipe reactor where all the chemicals are introduced. The granulation occurs via ‘the onion layering” method on a bed of small AS granules. An additive may be added in order to facilitate the granulation. All the granules pass through the dryer drum, the cooler drum, the coating drum and finally to storage. Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

AS dry crystallization: Pipe reactor, placed at the top of the prilling tower, is fed with sulfuric acid and liquid ammonia and the reaction takes place in the pipe reactor. The AS crystals, formed in the prilling tower, are conditioned through the dryer drum, the cooler drum and finally to storage. Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

AS large crystals : AS crystals are directly synthesized from gaseous ammonia and sulfuric acid, by a reactive crystallization which takes place in a DTB crystallizer. The crystals are conditioned through the dryer drum, the cooler drum and finally to storage. Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

AS small crystals : AS small crystals are directly synthesized from gaseous ammonia and sulfuric acid, by a reactive crystallization which takes place in a FC crystallizer. The crystals are conditioned through the dryer drum, the cooler drum before storage. Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

AS crystals from Phosphogypsum: Phosphogypsum is crushed and washed. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water are mixed together for the synthesis of ammonium carbonate.

Ammonium carbonate is sent to the conversion unit jointly with calcium sulfate. The solution is concentrated by the evaporator. In the DTB crystallizer, AS crystallization takes place.  Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

References:

ASN granules

AMMONIUM SULFO NITRATE (ASN)

Ammonium Sulpho-Nitrate (ASN) is a granular fertilizer which can be used both prior to sowing and for top dressing.

ASN is produced from crushed AS crystals or from AS slurry produced by pipe reactor and concentrated ammonium nitrate solution (ANS). The ASN slurry is atomized by compressed air and introduced in the granulator dryer onto a recycle bed of small particles, the granules are then building up by the onion layering principle. Hot air is also circulating co-currently which allows the drying to occur in the same equipment. The granules are conditioned through the cooler drum, the coating drum before storage. Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

References:

CN granules

CALCIUM NITRATE (CN)

Calcium nitrate (CN) fertilizer is a water-soluble chemical solution that provides plants with supplemental calcium and nitrogen. CN is synthesized by attacking limestone (or similar CaO source) by nitric acid in an agitated atmospheric reactor. The CN solution is then concentrated in evaporators to form concentrated CN melt. The concentrated CN melt is granulated in a fluidized rotary granulator. The granulated calcium nitrate is cooled in the drum cooler and coated in the coating drum.  The vapors generated in the process are cleaned in the scrubbers.

References:

MgN solution

MAGNESIUM NITRATE (MgN)

Magnesium nitrate (MgN) is a soluble, pure and crystal fertilizer that is very effective for covering magnesium deficiencies in plants. MgN is synthesized by the reaction between nitric acid and magnesium oxide (or magnesium carbonate suspension). MgO source in powder form is introduced in the pre-mixing tank where it is dissolved in a acidic magnesium nitrate hexahydrate solution. This suspension solution is sent to atmospheric reactor where it reacts with nitric acid and scrubbing water to forms MgN. The MgN solution is then concentrated in the evaporator to form concentrated MgN melt. The concentrated MgN melt is granulated in a fluidized rotary granulator. The granulated magnesium nitrate is cooled in the drum cooler and coated in the coating drum.  The vapors generated in the process are cleaned in the scrubbers.

Magnesium nitrate can be produced in the same plant with calcium nitrate.

 

CAN granules

CALCIUM AMMONIUM NITRATE (CAN)

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) is a granulated fertilizer which is preferred for the use on acidic soils, as it acidifies soil less than many common nitrogenous fertilizers.

CAN slurry is produced by mixing ammonium nitrate solution (ANSol) with calcium oxide source (calcium carbonate and dolomite etc.), filler and scrubbing water. 

The CAN slurry is atomized by compressed air and introduced in the granulator dryer onto a recycle bed of small particles, the granules are then building up by the onion layering principle. Hot air is also circulating co-currently which allows the drying to occur in the same equipment. The granules are conditioned through the cooler drum, the coating drum before storage. Any dusty air coming through the process is treated in the scrubbers.

Controlled release urea

CONTROLLED RELEASE UREA (CRU)

Controlled Release Urea (CRU) is used when nitrogen must be released in small quantities during a long period. Urea is screened and sent to a heating hopper using hot air for slightly increasing the urea temperature without any degradation. Urea is then sent to a coater where various chemicals are successively coated on the urea. The coated  CRU is finally cooled down in a cooling hopper. Dusty air from this hopper is filtered and the collected dust can be recycled back to the process. Any other dusty air coming from the process is treated in the scrubbers.

Sulfur coated urea

SULFUR COATED UREA (SCU)

Sulfur Coated Urea (SCU), which is a slow release fertilizer, is formed by coating urea prills or granules with sulfur.

Sulfur is an important element for plants; sulfur deficiency is manifested in yellowing of the plant, especially in the younger leaves.

Solid urea (granule or prill form) is firstly screened and then heated through a bulk heater and is sent to the fluidized rotary granulator where molten sulfur is sprayed on heated urea and hot air helps the solidification of melt leading to sulfur coated urea. SCU particles are directed to a bulk cooler to be cooled down and then sent to the coater. Dusty air generated during the process is washed by water in scrubber before being released to atmosphere.

UREA AMMONIUM NITRATE (UAN)

Urea Ammonium Nitrate (UAN), is a mixture of urea and AN containing 28% to 32% nitrogen (N), is one of the most popular liquid nitrogenous fertilizer.

UAN solution is produced by mixing stipulated quantity of Ammonium Nitrate solution or solid, water and solid or liquid urea in the reactor.

Urea is dissolved in AN solution and water to form UAN solution; agitator assures the homogeneity of the mixture. UAN solution is filtrated before going to storage tank.

Urea source can also be urea melt, in this case, the quantity of water added in the reactor is reduced.

UAS granules

UREA AMMONIUM SULFATE (UAS)

Urea ammonium sulfate (UAS) is suitable for basic fertilizing of most agricultural plants, and also for additional application during the vegetation.

UAS is a mixture of urea and AS. Urea (granule or prill), AS crystals and scrubbing is introduced into the steam granulator.

Alternatively, urea can be introduced in solution in the granulator instead of solid form. High quality AS slurry can be produced in a pipe reactor by reaction of liquid ammonia and sulfuric acid. This slurry is sprayed on the solid raw materials and the granulation begins.

Exiting the granulator, UAS compounds are directed to a dryer drum,  a pre-cooler, and a fluidized bed cooler for conditioning and then coated in the coater. Dusty air generated during the process is treated in scrubber before being released to atmosphere.

Chemicals & Fertilizers

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulfur

Complex fertilizer
using N, P and K

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulfur

Calcium

Magnesium